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Along with the natural environment, population is a significant factor in the development of society.

Along with the natural environment, population is a significant factor in the development of society.

Currently, the Danube anthropological type predominates in the plains of Galicia, western Podolia (except for the extreme northern regions of Lviv and Ternopil). On the territory of Poland it is Kholm and Tomaszów.

Features of the Danube type are manifested in the most Caucasian features: long, relatively narrow; face with a long, straight and thin nose. This type makes up more than 10% of the total population of Ukraine.

2. Polissya type. Descendants of the Late Neolithic carriers of the Dnieper culture, who migrated to the right bank of Polissya. The Ukrainians of Zhytomyr and Rivne Polissya include an ancient Cro-Magnoid Paleo-European component. These are the carriers of the archeological culture of comb pottery, which have a genetic connection with even older Late Mesolithic cultures.

Features of the Polissya type: very low and wide face (face index 85.5), maximally developed eyebrows, massive forehead. This type is not recorded in any area of ​​Europe, except Ukraine. The growth of Polishchuks is average, the eyes are slightly darker than in other regions, and the hair color is lighter.

This type is widespread in Zhytomyr, Rivne, Volyn (Volyn version of Polissya type). The Volyn version also includes the northern districts of Lviv and Ternopil regions, as well as Ukrainians of Brest region. Polissya type is about 10% of all Ukrainians.

3. Upper Dnieper type. Descendants of the ancient Paleo-European population, but without Cro-Magnon features. Features of this type – very light pigmentation of the eyes (60%) and the lowest in Ukraine, the main indicator (80). This type is recorded only in Rypkin district of Chernihiv region. It is only 0.5% of all Ukrainians.

4. Central Ukrainian type. Descendants of the local Old Ukrainian population of the XII-XIII centuries, which have a Slavic basis (slightly modified Danube, Polissya, as well as more southern elements of Indo-Iranian, Illyrian-Thracian and later Turkic origin). Turkic anthropological features are revealed in a comparative analysis in some villages of Poltava region and Western Ukraine, but they are not clear – only a slight flattening of the face and a special fold of the upper eyelids.

Ukrainians of Kyiv region are the genetic heirs of the aboriginal population and retain distinct Caucasian traits, despite the Mongol-Tatar invasion.

This type is characterized by high growth, but average indicators of the head, face, hair and eye pigmentation, average height of the nose and other signs. It accounts for 60% of all Ukrainians.

5. Lower Dnieper-Prut type. Descendants of the Indo-Aryan paleoanthropological population. A noticeable Indo-Iranian and even ancient Indian component (especially in the village of Kamyane, Lebedyn district), which is expressed in the dark pigmentation of the eyes and hair, the significant development of the hair.

This type is characterized by long-headedness, a slight protrusion of the lower part of the face, an unusual combination of a sharply profiled face with a low sympathetic index finger. These are tall, relatively darkly pigmented people with a low head. There are two variants of this type: the Lower Dnieper (derived from the population of southern Kievan Rus) and Pryprut (Ukrainian population of northern Moldova and Khotyn).

6. The Dinaric type is close to the Carpathian (both have a number of mutual transitions) Descendants of the ancient population of Ukraine, which have significant Illyrian, Thracian, Celtic and Indian components Dinaric anthropological type is common in the eastern Carpathians, Bukovina and partly – Hutsul region (except western Hutsuls belonging to the Carpathian type), in the eastern Carpathians and and…

It is characterized by the same number of light and dark eyes, but the color is mostly dark (70%), light hair only 2%, the rest – mixed colors. This type is 4-5% of all Ukrainians.

7. Carpathian (Carpatho-Alpine) type. Descendants of Kushtanovich culture of VI – III centuries. B.C. The area of ​​their distribution coincides with the area of ​​culture of the Subcarpathian mounds, the carriers of which were carps. Anthropologically similar to the Dinars. Hematological features (including rhesus negative) indicate their genetic connection with the peoples of the Balkan Peninsula, the Caucasus, and North India. The Carpathian type makes up 7-8% of all Ukrainians.

Both Slavic and non-Slavic tribes took part in the ethnogenesis of Ukrainians. Slavic tribes include white Croats, Poles, Slovaks, Czechs, Serbs, Russians, and Belarusians. As the proximity of the geographical location of the Slavic lands contributed to close contacts, it certainly affected ethnic ties.

Among non-Slavic tribes, anthropologists call the Iranian, Dacophracian, Baltic, Turkic, and North Caucasian. As for the Finno-Ugric tribes, their traces are almost not found on the territory of Ukraine, only in the northeast from the Dnieper to the Volga the Mordovian ethnic component appears.

As for the concept of the Ukrainian race, it was clearly formulated by Yuriy Lypa in the book "The Purpose of Ukraine". In his opinion, race is not so much the proportions of the skull, the width of the face or the color of the eyes, as ethnopsychology, genetics, the spirit of the nation. Although, of course, the genetic code gives a certain anthropological type, which is expressed in appearance.

According to ancient historians, topics for narrative essays every Scythian must have known his pedigree to the seventh generation. He who did not know his origin could not be considered a full-fledged man, he was out of the family, out of the tribe, it was difficult for him to survive, he was shunned. And if today among us, civilized people, not everyone can name the names of their grandfathers and great-grandfathers, let’s think about this Scythian ethic. After all, through the knowledge and veneration of a person of his blood ancestors, there is a knowledge of the genetic roots of his people, and a respectful attitude to its shrines.


Philosophical vision of the problem of population reproduction. Abstract

Along with the natural environment, population is a significant factor in the development of society. This aspect of human nature is studied by the science of demography

Demography examines population dynamics, migration, family, its composition and development, birth rate, mortality, employment, proportions of the population by age, gender and other characteristics, marriage and divorce, and so on.

The object of study of demography – a demographic system, which includes people and demographic relations.

Demographic relations, in turn, are those relations that people enter into in the multifaceted process of population reproduction. This is a purely working concept. It means starting a family, birth, migration, marital relations, intergenerational relationships, and so on.

The philosophical vision of this system of relations is that the demographic system, firstly, is internally focused on self-preservation, self-reproduction, and secondly, it is an integrity, a dynamic system that changes with the historical development of society. The most important indicator of the state of the population is the birth rate. Experts distinguish the following birth rates:

Total fertility rate. It is determined by the number of births in a certain area for a certain period, usually a year, per 1,000 population. Special birth rate. Calculated as the ratio of the number of births to the number of women of childbearing age. Marital birth rate. Shows the number of births per 1,000 married women, ie the number of children born (per year) per thousand married women. The total fertility rate shows the average number of children born to one woman over her lifetime.

This is a kind of characteristic of the generation.

Natural population growth is the difference between the number of births and deaths in a given area over a period of time, mostly, as we have already noted, for a year. Along with the birth rate, an important indicator of the state of the demographic system is the characteristics of the type of population reproduction.

What is population reproduction? This is a constant renewal of generations. According to demographers, every 100 women (families) should give birth to 260-270 children in order to keep the population from declining. Of course, we mean 260-270 births throughout life, or more precisely, during the reproductive period.

The childbearing period is the part of a woman’s life during which she is able to give birth to children. Today it is considered that this age is from 15 to 50 years. There are cases of birth of children beyond these ages, but they are rare.

However, she had to be able or able – no less than men – to physically have a child. It is important what this child will be like: healthy or sick, capable of high physical, intellectual and spiritual development or not. Society cannot be indifferent to these issues.

It is well known that the number of births with pathological abnormalities increases both at too early and at the late age of the mother. This means that society, the state, politicians, the public cannot ignore such issues, they are obliged to take care of creating the most favorable conditions for the birth of children at the optimal age. Researchers of society, economists, sociologists, politicians often use the concept of demographic situation. This is primarily the state of such demographic processes as births and deaths, marriage and divorce (marriage), the composition and location of the population in a given area in a given period of time and so on.

Demographic policy – a system of special measures aimed at achieving in the future the desired for society type or level of population reproduction. The most significant impact can be on the dynamics of population reproduction and the demographic situation through regulation or through the influence of the state on the birth rate.

What determines the birth rate (in the country, in a particular region, locality)? There are dozens of factors. Here are the most important among them:

Demographic. The presence of an appropriate proportion of men and women in a given area is taken into account. Economic. We are talking about the level of economic development of the state, region, family.